Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to transmit signals.


Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system. A lifelong condition with no known cure, MS periodically gives symptoms such as balance disorder, double vision, fatigue, muscle spasms, walking difficulties, or numbness and tingling of the face and body. These symptoms usually worsen with time, affecting daily activities and reducing a person’s quality of life. 


APPOTEK cannot help with MS, but your doctor can help ease the symptoms with medications and other treatments.


The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is believed to occur as a result of some combination of genetic and environmental factors such as infectious agents. Scientists have tried to combine the data into likely explanations, but none has proved definitive. While there are a number of environmental risk factors and although some are partly modifiable, further research is needed to determine whether their elimination can prevent MS.


Multiple sclerosis causes a variety of symptoms: changes in sensation (hypoesthesia), muscle weakness, abnormal muscle spasms, or difficulty moving; difficulties with coordination and balance; problems in speech (dysarthria) or swallowing (dysphagia), visual problems (nystagmus, optic neuritis, phosphenes or diplopia), fatigue and acute or chronic pain syndromes, bladder and bowel difficulties, cognitive impairment, or emotional symptomatology (mainly major depression). The main clinical measure in progression of the disability and severity of the symptoms is the Expanded Disability Status Scale or EDSS.


The initial attacks are often transient, mild (or asymptomatic), and self-limited. They often do not prompt a health care visit and sometimes are only identified in retrospect, once the diagnosis has been made after further attacks. The most common initial symptoms reported are: changes in sensation in the arms, legs or face (33%), complete or partial vision loss (optic neuritis) (20%), weakness (13%), double vision (7%), unsteadiness when walking (5%), and balance problems (3%); but many rare initial symptoms have been reported such as aphasia or psychosis. 15% of individuals have multiple symptoms when they first seek medical attention.

Prevention and protection

For MS, you should contact a doctor to get the right treatment. Smoking has a negative effect on MS, so it’s good to quit.


Although there is no known cure for MS, several therapies have proven helpful. The primary aims of therapy are returning function after an attack, preventing new attacks, and preventing disability. Starting medications is generally recommended in people after the first attack, when more than two lesions are seen on an MRI.

When to consult a doctor

If you have symptoms of MS, you need to contact your doctor.

How Appotek can help

APPOTEK cannot help with MS. Contact your regular health care provider.


Vadym Diadiun, Doctor of Medicine, M.D.